|Qualified Plan: A qualified plan is a retirement plan that meets the requirements of Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, one that is, therefore, eligible for tax-favored treatment.
Quotation: The quotation refers to the highest bid and lowest offer (asked) price currently available for a security. For example, an investor requesting a price on XYZ Company might be quoted "40 to 40." This means that the best bid price (the highest
price any buyer will pay) is currently $40 a share and the best offer price (the lowest price any seller will accept) is $40.50.
Rate of Return: The rate of return is the gain or loss of an investment over a specified period of time, expressed as a percentage increase over the original investment cost. For stocks, therate of return is the dividend and capital appreciation. The
yield is the rate of return on fixed-income securities. Analysts use the return on equity to compare the rates of return on differing investment vehicles. Accountants use internal rates of return when reviewing investment contracts, budgets, or investment
Rated Policy: Also called an "extra risk" policy, a ratedpolicy covers a higher risk for a higher-than-usual premium. For example, an insured person with a dangerous occupation or impaired health condition often has a "rated" policy that costs more
to protect the insurer from added risk.
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT): A REIT is a security that sells like a stock on the major exchanges and invests primarily in real estate through properties and mortgages.
Recapitalization: Recapitalization occurs when a company changes its capital structure by exchanging preferred stock for bonds to reduce taxes or to avoid or emerge from a bankruptcy. Often, new debt (e.g., reorganization bonds) is issued
to replace existing debt.
Redemption: Redemption is the repayment of a debt security or preferred stock, either for par value at maturity or for a premium before maturity.
Required Minimum Distribution (RMD): The RMD is the legally required minimum annual amount that must be distributed from a retirement account to an IRA holder or qualified plan participant. RMDs, which are calculated by dividing the year-end
account balance by the applicable distribution period or life expectancy, must begin by April 1 of the year following that during which the individual reaches age 70½.
Revenue: Revenue is the amount of money that a company receives during a given period from the sale of goods and services, before expenses and taxes.
Reverse Mortgage: This type of loan is used to turn home equity into cash. The lender makes regular tax-free payments to the homeowner (borrower), which are usually used to fund retirement needs.
Risk: Risk refers to the quantifiable likelihood of loss or less-than-expected returns. For example, U.S. savings bonds, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the federal government, are considered low risk, where as junk bonds,
which are issued by companies with questionable credit, are generally considered high risk. Historic or average returns are often used to measure risk.
Risk Tolerance: Risk tolerance is the measurement of an investor's willingness or ability to handle declines in the value of his or her investment portfolio. For many investors, risk tolerance is an important consideration when developing
a diversification strategy for a portfolio.
Rollover: A rollover is a tax-free transfer of funds from one retirement plan to another.
Roth IRA: A Roth IRA is a type of Individual Retirement Account (IRA) in which contributions are nondeductible. Earnings grow tax deferred, and distributions are tax free, provided you have owned the account for five years and are at least
Roth IRA Conversion: This refers to the process of converting an existing IRA into a Roth IRA. Roth conversions have specific income eligibility requirements (through 2009) and income tax consequences.
S Corporation (Subchapter S of the Code): An S corporation is an incorporated business that is a "pass-through" entity for tax purposes.
Salary Reduction Plan: A salary reduction plan is any qualified retirement program in which employees make tax advantaged contributions on a pre-tax basis.
Savings Account: A savings account is an account with a bank or savings and loan company that pays interest on money deposited.
Section 162 (Executive Bonus) Plan: Internal Revenue Code Section 162 provides employers a deduction for trade or business expenses. Through this executive bonus plan, the employee owns a life insurance policy for which the employer pays
premiums. Premiums are taxable to the employee.
Secured Card: A secured card is a credit card guaranteed by a deposit in a savings account or certificate of deposit (CD). The credit line usually equals the deposit. If a cardholder defaults on payments, the issuer may apply the deposit
toward the balance owed.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC is the primary federal regulatory agency for the securities industry, whose responsibility is to promote full public disclosure and protect investors against fraudulent and manipulative practices.
In addition to regulation and protection, it also monitors corporate takeovers in the US. The SEC is composed of five commissioners appointed by the president and approved by the Senate.
Security Deposit: A security deposit is a type of payment usually required of an individual wishing to secure a personal loan, a rental property, or a later purchase.
Self-Directed IRA (SDA): A self-directed IRA is an individual retirement arrangement that allows a holder a wider choice of investments, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and money market funds. SDAs may be opened at institutions with
trust powers, state FDIC-insured institutions, federal credit unions, and federally chartered savings banks or savings and loans.
Self-Employment Tax: The self-employment tax is a Social Security tax imposed on self-employed individuals. The self employed need to file a special "Computation of Social Security Self-Employment Tax" (Schedule SE) with their annual Individual
Income Tax Return Form 1040.
Seller Financing: Seller financing is a "creative financing" technique in which an owner sells property, usually real estate, directly to a buyer. This technique is often used if the market interest rates are too high for the buyer and the seller does
not require principal from the sale. The title or deed transfers only at full payment of the loan, and any foreclosure results in the property reverting to the seller. Seller financing was very popular during the 1980s when real estate values escalated. Buyers
used seller financing to arrange "no money down" purchases of real estate.
Settlement Costs: Also called closing costs, these are the expenses involved in transferring real estate to a buyer from a seller. Settlement costs typically include fees or charges for loan origination, discount points, appraisal, property survey,
title search, title insurance, deed filing, credit reports, taxes, and legal services. Closing costs do not include points and the cost of private mortgage insurance (PMI).
Share: A share is a certificate representing one unit of ownership in a corporation, mutual fund, or limited partnership.
SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) Plan: A SIMPLE Plan is a retirement plan, which can be set up as a 401(k) or IRA, that allows employee pre-tax contributions and mandatory employer matching contributions. All contributions
are immediately vested in a SIMPLE plan.
Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP): A SEP is a retirement plan allowing both an employer and an employee to contribute to the employee's Individual Retirement Account (IRA) on a discretionary basis, subject to special rules on eligibility
Situs: The term situs refers to the location or position of a property. For intangible property, such as debt, the situs is generally the jurisdiction in which the debt obligation was issued.
Small Business Association (SBA): The SBA is a federal government organization that assists small businesses in providing programs and opportunities to hasten their potential growth and success.
Smart Card: Unlike a debit, charge, or AMT card, the smart card requires a prepayment of a specified amount for the future purchase of goods, services, or admissions. Smart card holders may use the card without debiting a checking account or adding
balances to a charge card. Banks, hotels, recreational facilities, and other businesses provide smart card privileges to their customers and guests.
Social Security Tax: Since inception, the Social Security system has been funded by a Social Security Tax, which is paid by both employers and employees. These levies are deposited in trust funds for investment. At various optional retirement ages,
employees may qualify for fixed-income payments based on marital status, quarters employed, and wages earned. The self-employed worker has a different contribution schedule, but he or she has equal treatment on all distributions at retirement or disability.
Split-Dollar Life Insurance: A split-dollar life insurance agreement is a contractual arrangement between employer and employee sharing obligations and benefits of a life insurance policy. The shared arrangement may govern the payment of premiums,
death proceeds, cash values, dividends, or ownership.
Spousal IRA: A spousal IRA is an individual retirement arrangement for a nonworking spouse funded with contributions from the working spouse. The Internal Revenue Service sets a limit on the combined amount a married couple may contribute to a traditional
and spousal IRA.
Standard & Poor's 500 Index (S&P 500): The S&P 500 is an index of 500 of the mostwidely held common stocks on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It is used as a measure to indicate the overall health of the US stock market.
Stock: A stock is a security representing partial ownership, also called equity, in a corporation. Each stock share represents a proportionate claim against the company's profits and assets. Common stock entitles shareholders to participate
in stockholder meetings and to vote for the board of directors. Preferred stock does not confer voting rights, but it takes precedence in claims against profits and assets.
Stock Certificate: This document substantiates the legal ownership of shares of stock in a corporation. Stock certificates are made out to the shareholder or the brokerage firm, and they identify the issuer, the number of
shares, the par value, and the stock class. A stock certificate must be endorsed by the shareholder to sell the shares.
Stock Market: The stock market is a general term referring to the organized trading of securities in the various market exchanges and the over the counter (OTC) market.
Stock Purchase Plan: A stock purchase plan is a mechanism for employees to purchase company stock. Increasingly, companies are encouraging employee participation in ownership opportunities. Employees may purchase company stock in Employee Stock Ownership
Plans (ESOPs), Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRIPs), stock options, automatic investment plans, and other creative plans. In theory and practice, employees have the potential of becoming majority stockholders through participation in a stock purchase plan,
assuming a viable role in corporate planning.
Stock Split: A stock split is a distribution of additional shares to each stockholder in proportion to the shares the individual already owns. A stock split has no immediate effect on a stockholder's equity. For example, if a stock splits 2-for-1,
a shareholder who owns one share with a $100 par value before the split, would own two shares, each with a $50 par value, after the split.
Straight-Term Mortgage: A straight-term mortgage is a mortgage in which the borrowed amount is due at the conclusion of a term, or maturity date.
Survivorship Life Insurance: Also called second-to-die or last-to-die insurance, survivorship life insurance covers the lives of two people and pays benefits when the second person dies. It is often used by couples to fund estate tax liability.